Category Archives: Science

Who Was Ussher, and What Did He Usher In?

Have you ever heard of James Ussher? He was the Archbishop of Armagh for the Church of Ireland and Primate of All Ireland from 1625-1656. He was a brilliant theologian, Chancellor of St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin, and eventually the Vice-Provost at Trinity College. I’ve visited these places and am very impressed, because I can’t think any higher honors for someone living in that time and place!  However, what really made him famous was his scholarly work in attempting to figure out the age of the earth from studying biblical genealogies in the Masoretic text and cross-referencing them with various events in history such as the deaths of Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. According to his calculations, Adam and Eve were created by God around 4004 BC, King Solomon’s temple was built 3000 years from creation, and Jesus was born 1000 years later. Even the Bible I use today has Ussher’s calculations of time included at the top of each page, so I think his work is still considered the gold standard for most English-speaking students of the Bible who believe in interpreting the scriptures literally.

Many people today think of the Bible as simply a book of legends and myths, but I do not. I believe it is true and is the inspired Word of God. As the Apostle Paul wrote, the scriptures are “able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:  That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works” (1 Timothy 3:15-17).

Does this mean I believe that all we need to study is the Bible? Not at all! God has given us a vast world to explore and understand. However, I do believe the Bible is our textbook for how to live (and how to gain eternal life), and that it is accurate in what it says. I also resonate with Moses’s teaching in Deuteronomy 29:29, “The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law.” God has given us tiny windows into the universe—like a father explaining something vastly complex to his children—but what he says is true, albeit put in simple language that we can understand. And, this is enough for us. We can delve into the mysteries of the universe all we want and will never exhaust knowledge, but in the Bible, we have all we need to live lives filled with love, joy, peace, and goodness. It is enough. God is enough. Jesus is enough!

But, what about the age of the world? Is it really 6,021 years old? I’m not sure. I do believe that I’ve descended from Adam and Eve, whether or not I can “prove” it through genealogical research. I also believe in the Genesis account of creation, including “the evening and the morning were the first day” (Genesis 1:5). Sounds like a 24-hour day to me, and therefore I tend to hold with the “early creation” point of view. Tomorrow I want to share more on that subject, but for today, may I just end with the last words of James Ussher? “O Lord forgive me, especially my sins of omission.” Ussher ushered in an age of believing the world was nearing 6 thousand years of age and that the millennial reign of Christ would begin at the beginning of the 7th thousand (roughly AD 2000). Was he right, or did he omit something accidentally that made his calculations off?

When we get to heaven, we’ll know the truth about so many things, but in the meantime, can we humbly hold to our opinions without letting them break our fellowship? There are some things worth arguing, but I don’t personally believe that genealogies or how many days the earth has existed are among them. The only thing we’re exhorted to contend for in the scripture is true faith: “earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints” (Jude 1:3). God want us to believe and testify to true faith, and that faith is explained in the Bible.

But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain” (Titus 3:9).

As I besought thee…that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine, Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do. Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned” (1 Timothy 1:3-5, emphasis mine).


The Horrible Truth about Deep Water Horizon and Deep Waters

Seven years ago, on April 20, 2010, Deepwater Horizon exploded into a firestorm that could be seen for 40 miles, resulting in the largest oil spill in U.S. history. Deepwater Horizon was an offshore drilling rig that had successfully drilled the deepest oil well in history (over 10,000 ft. deep) in the Gulf of Mexico just a few months earlier, and           on April 20th, the crew of 126 were hard at work testing the new well               at Macondo Prospect, forty-one miles off the coast of Louisiana. Deepwater Horizon cost almost a million dollars per day to operate with equipment and crew, and although there were issues with safety, the project was over a month behind schedule and overdue at a new site, so the decision makers decided to test the well before they were sure all the work was properly completed and all the concrete had time to cure.  The movie dramatizing this disaster is excellent and rated PG-13, but it is so graphic (and bad language) that I recommend it with caution. As one who’s inexperienced with the technical side of oil drilling, it was somewhat hard to follow what was happening, but the message was crystal clear: Often those who take the risks and make the decisions are not those who suffer the greatest consequences for their greed and irresponsible selfishness. Eleven men died, scores of men suffered, and the responsible companies ended up spending not millions —but billions—of dollars trying to recover and compensate for the damages. As we make important decisions, let’s remember that if we choose selfishly and unwisely, we’re not just going to hurt ourselves, we’re likely to do more damage than we could ever possibly imagine.  But my people would not hearken to my voice; and Israel would none of me. So I gave them up unto their own hearts’ lust: and they walked in their own counsels. Oh that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in my ways! (Psalm 81:11-13)

Racing Extinction or Promoting Life

9                    Despite Racing Extinction being dubbed a “thriller” by some, Racing_Extinction_posterI think of it more as an electrifying documentary about the vicious and inexcusable exploitation of animals around the world that is resulting in a massive number of God’s two million+ beautiful species going extinct at an estimated rate of 150-200 (up to 2,000) per day, which many scientists believe is as much as 1000 times the natural rate and will be cataclysmic for our planet. 10Racing Extinction is a visually breathtaking and emotionally heartbreaking look at the cruel disregard for animal life in the mad rush for money and pleasure. louieLouie Psihoyos, a Greek American photographer and film director, has created a powerful documentary with enough incriminating evidence to convince anyone with a shred of humanity left that we need to do something to change our own habits and tastes in order to save our planet…literally! And, this isn’t just a money-making deal for Louie. 12On the day he was planning to accept an Academy Award for his documentary, The Cove, Louie instead went on an undercover mission to expose the (illegal) sale of whale meat at a restaurant in America. 6Racing Extinction shows several horrifying videos of undercover investigations of the shark fin and manta gill trade, and several of those who are risking their lives in this quest were choking back tears as they discussed the merciless killing of animals for delicacies or supposed medicines. 2In addition to the movie, activists have begun the campaign “Start with One Thing” to encourage people to change their habits. 1For those of us who aren’t in to eating Shark Fin Soup, there is one obvious way we can contribute: simply by eating a little less beef, which is hugely expensive to raise (in the global economy of resources). Fish Manta rayThat will be a tough one for me, because I love beef, but I’m going to try to do so, and I read that Americans are generally overfed, so it will probably be good for me as well as for the planet. After all, we’re all in this together!4And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Genesis 1:28). God has given us sovereignty over the earth, but I believe his intention is for us to care for our world as good stewards, the way a kind and merciful king would oversee his dominion.

Scott Kelly and The Martian: Surviving in an Alien Environment

Scott Kelly WikiLast night Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko returned to earth after spending an unprecedented 340 days at the International Space Station (ISS), which orbits some 250 miles above earth. The ISS has been visited by more than 200 people since its installation in 2000, and during this past year, astronauts from six different nations also spent some time aboard with Scott and Mikhail. Although the second-generation, Russian cosmonaut Sergey Volkov has clocked the most days in space (548), Kelly now has spent 520 days in space, the most among U.S. astronauts, and Kelly reflected, “I’ve been up here for a really long time and sometimes, when I think about it, I feel like I’ve lived my whole life up here.”  All Sky Map WikiWhat were the astronauts doing in space? Well, they had some 400 experiments and tasks to accomplish, so they might have gotten cramped in their tight quarters, but they probably weren’t too bored! Among other things, they were working with the new CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET), an instrument built to track the trajectory of cosmic ray particles and measure their charge and energy (particularly electrons and gamma rays) in hopes of finding the signature of dark matter or nearby sources of high-energy particle acceleration. COSMOS_3D_dark_matter_map WIKIScientists posit that “dark matter” makes up about one-fourth of the universe’s mass energy, but so far humans have been unable to see it optically and cannot figure out what it is. According to a November 9, 2015 report from NASA, “Right now, scientists are much more certain what dark matter is not, rather than what it is. This research may help scientists identify dark matter and fit it, more accurately, into standard models of the universe.” Lots of food for thought and speculation. The signature of dark matter in space is an enigma to me, but I recognize the signature of spiritual dark matter, and it is not the hand of God; it is the hand of the Evil One, about whom I know less. The MartianAnother aspect of Kelly’s mission was to help NASA prepare for the hope of landing humans on Mars in the future. As NASA Administrator, Charles Bolden, explained, “Scott has become the first American astronaut to spend a year in space, and in so doing, helped us take one giant leap toward putting boots on Mars.” As part of his year, Kelly even watched The Martian in space, and had this to say: “There were a lot of parallels with that movie to living in space for a long period of time, including growing things in an extreme environment, which we recently finished up doing.” So, if you’re interested, it sounds like The Martian may be more than just a sci-fi survivalist drama. Actually, I really enjoyed it, particularly the protagonist’s (played by Matt Damon) undying optimism toward surviving the unsurvivable by using his ingenuity and working his heart out!  Scott Kelly NASAWhen interviewed about his prep for re-entry, Kelly said, “I’m looking down at the Earth right now and it’s 250 miles below me, and only a small portion of that is the atmosphere, and when that Soyuz hits that atmosphere going 17,500 miles an hour, a lot of things have to happen just right to make sure we touch down and parachute safely. So when you look at that big space between us and the speed involved, it’s pretty serious. And it’s something that you definitely think about and consider. But it’s my second time flying the Soyuz, my fourth time flying in space. It’s something I signed up to do, and we’ll be ready for it next Tuesday.”   Earth from outer space WikiThere are spiritual parallels between human bodies surviving on an alien planet without food and water or oxygen, and human spirits surviving in an alien environment where others don’t live on Jesus, the bread and water of life, or find their life in the breath of the Holy Spirit. I was very taken with Kelly’s comments on being prepared to re-enter the earth’s atmosphere, which (in spiritual terms) would amount to landing safely in heaven. Do you know what to expect when your body dies? Are you prepared for your “flight home”? I’m signed up, and I’m ready. I hope you are too!

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.”

(John 3:16-21)

(P.S.—If you want to see 10 gorgeous photos of Planet Earth that Kelly took from outer space, you can access them here:  )

2015 UN Climate Change Conference: How Can We Individually Meet the Moment?

Moon risingLast weekend marked the end of 196 nations hashing out how to solve the global warming issue…for the 21st consecutive year. What’s the problem, and will their new resolution be an effective answer? SnowflakesIn an over-simplified nutshell, the problem is that many scientists (perhaps foremost, James Hansen, Director of Climate Science at Columbia University’s Earth Institute) believe an increase in temperature of even 2°C will eventually cause the  Antarctic ice sheet to collapse, raising global water levels enough to put some island nations under water and make refugees out of millions in coastal cities around the world—for instance 100 million people in Bangladesh, much of  NYC city and parts of our west coast, etc., which—if true—is definitely a cause for concern! These scientists also believe the major cause of global warming is carbon emissions.South FloridaHowever, I’m not convinced we really “met the moment” with the agreement that was adopted over the weekend. I know Obama wants to leave a legacy of better carbon-emission controls, but the wording of “should” instead of “shall” in the document makes everything aspirational rather than legal. “The problem isn’t solved,” Obama admitted in his address, “but a framework has been put in place.” However, in order for the pact to be legally binding in any sense, it will have to be ratified over the next several years by 55 countries that produce 55% of the the world’s greenhouse gases. Will enough countries ratify it? I think the biggest hindrance will be that the agreement not only calls for a reduction of carbon emissions ASAP (which will be hard enough), but it also states that some countries (read that the U.S., EU, and other industrialized nations) will provide $100 billion yearly to developing countries for “climate-resilient development.” How are we going to pay for that, as appealing as it sounds?

I have no clue how to solve the problem of global warming, but I know I have a lot of questions. Is is really even true that the world is hotter now than it was 200 years ago? How do we know, since no one was keeping records on world temperature 200 years ago? Seems like the core temperature of Earth would be cooling down. Is it possible that the world’s surface is heating up primarily because the increasing population creates more heat, but that the core temperature is dropping ever so slightly, so that the overall effect will be no significant change? Is it possible that if the global temperatures rise, we will eventually have a world covered by a thick layer of clouds…full of water from the polar ice caps, but not raising the water levels on earth significantly? What about the biblical promise that the world will never again be overwhelmed by a universal flood, and the prophecy that the earth will be destroyed by fire? Is the feared temperature rise part of an inevitable process?

When I consider global problems, I think of the verse in Psalm 131:1, “Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty: neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or in things too high for me.” I don’t know the answers at all!Trust JesusAlthough I’m glad world leaders are trying to put their heads together to solve world problems, I wish they’d be looking  to God for the answers, because as the psalmist wrote: “Give us help from trouble: for vain is the help of man” (Psalm 60:1).Flowers There is one thing we can do as individual believers, and I suspect the true solution to the issue of global warming—as with all of life’s problems—is for individual people, one by one, to do what’s right before God…a “grassroots” movement to live responsibly day by day as stewards of this beautiful planet God has entrusted to our care. “Waste not, want not.” Strawberries    We can at least take responsibility for ourselves by eating simple foods Salad                                                            …healthy foods. Foggy Road          We can walk or use more public transportation, consume less, recycle…Character Sign        study, and then discipline ourselves to do the things we know are right.

“And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Genesis 1:28).

“Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.”
1 Corinthians 4:2

The Value of Salt: Pink vs White or What? شط الجريد‎ Šoṭṭ el-Jarīd

Pink River in TunisiaHave you ever seen a pink river? Chott el Djerid. Tunisia Pink River I saw one flowing into “Chott el Djerid” in Southern Tunisia. Salt Flats in Southern TunisiaIn Star Wars, Chott el Djerid is the setting for the Lars Homestead. Chott el Djerid. Tunisia in SummerWe visited in June, when temperatures sometimes soar to 122°F (50°C),
causing intense evaporation so that the lake becomes a great salt flat. Chott el Djerid. Tunisia 1In fact, Chott el Djerid is the largest salt pan in the Sahara Desert:
5,000 square kilometers (2,700 sq. miles)! Beautiful Pink Salt Chott el Djerid. TunisiaOne of the most fascinating aspects of Chott el Djerid is that the water
is tinged with iron oxide, giving the salt a beautiful pink tint! Pink Himalayan SaltIt reminds me of the pink Himalayan salts that have become popular in America, famous for some 80± trace minerals
and touted by health food enthusiasts as particularly beneficial.  Iron Oxide in water Chott el Djerid. TunisiaHowever, I can’t find any peer-reviewed scientific research to verify this. Salt crystals Chott el Djerid. Tunisia In fact, analysis reveals that some of the Himalayan salts also contain trace elements of radioactive substances like uranium, radium, and polonium,
not to mention substances that can be poisonous, like thallium. Colored SaltsIt seems the scientific stance is that these trace elements—good and bad—
are too insignificant to be helpful or harmful,
so it appears you can choose pink or white—or whatever—as your palate pleases. Salt Chott el Djerid. TunisiaHowever, keep in mind that white table salt is often enhanced with iodine, which is a particularly good thing for those of us who live in areas like the Great Lakes, where iodine deficiency has historically been a problem. Desert Roses Chott el Djerid. TunisiaIf you go pink, consider adding more dairy, soy, and ocean-harvested foods
to your diet, or find another good source for iodine. Mining Pink Salt. TunisiaWhatever you choose, you gotta love salt, right? Lake Chott el Djerid. TunisiaWhere would we be without salt to bring out the flavor in our foods?! Largest salt pan in Sahara Chott el Djerid. TunisiaHow about in our spiritual lives? Got any salty friends? How about you and me? Pink Salt Chott el Djerid. TunisiaAre we salty?  I wonder what trace elements we’re carrying…
I hope nothing radioactive or poisonous! Salt Crystals 2 Chott el Djerid. TunisiaFather, please refine us and enhance our spirits
so that we promote health in those around us.  Grains of salt Chott el Djerid. Tunisia“Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another” (Mark 9:50).

(All the photos were taken in Southern Tunisia last summer, except for the 2 photos of various salts, which were taken at my local grocery store here in Michigan.)

P.S.—If you want more information about this amazing salt flat, you can find it here: