Category Archives: Bible Commentary

Rise Up, My Love (264): Overcoming Trials

Song of Solomon 8:5 “Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon her beloved?”Are you feeling all clear and cheery today? No clouds in the sky of your heart? Or, are the clouds gone but you’re burning under the heat of the sun? You’ve laid your burden at the foot of the cross, but you’re still wandering through the wilderness?

Healing is always miraculous, and sometimes God heals us completely in a moment, but often giving our struggles to Jesus is like getting a cast on a broken leg. It begins the healing process, but it may take months before we can walk without a limp. Or, as in the case of Jacob who became a “prince” with God, we may limp for the rest of our lives (Genesis 32:31-32).

Whatever the consequences of our sins and trials may be… Jacob came through his wilderness experience as a prince, and so can we. In case you’re still struggling, let’s consider this verse again. We all have wilderness experiences in our lives. We all have times in our lives when we feel very alone, very lost, very betrayed…very hurt. We feel pain. Often we feel great loss…loss of love, loss of trust, loss of the presence of those we love.

Most of us have experienced the anguish of, “Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me” (Psalm 41:9). Our whole world turns grey. Our minds race like rats running a maze, but all we can find are dead ends. There is no way out. There is no way of escape. We can run, but will that help? Which way is the right way?

I used to always want to run away from pain, but I’ve learned over many years that running away doesn’t work. Yes, there are some types of physical pain that can be avoided by running, but we can’t run away from spiritual and emotional realities. In the spiritual realm, we must learn to make the painful journey out of the wilderness—not by running wildly away from trouble—but by leaning on our Savior and finding all we need in him.

No matter how wonderful our spouse, family, and friends are, there are times when they will fail. No matter how much our parents love us, they can’t always be there for us. I am one of the very blessed ones. Some have no parents or spouse at all, or the ones they have are cruel and wicked. Some people have no friends or family at all…good or bad! They are alone in this world…not just part of the time, but all of the time. What then?

No matter what the circumstances of your life are today, if at some time you have come to the Lord repenting of your sins and asking Jesus Christ to be your Lord and Savior, then you are a child of God and a part of the family of God and bride of Christ. In that case, whatever the wilderness…he is with you. How shall we escape? “How shall we then live?” By leaning on the everlasting arms of our Savior. By looking into his eyes and sensing his love…by being filled with his peace and presence. By following his example and walking beside him.

What is the wilderness? Most of the time it is the sense of emotional desolation we feel when we are disappointed by the circumstances of life. Really, it is the Wilderness of Sin (Exodus 16:1), and at its heart—the wilderness of our own sin, created by looking inward and feeling sorry for ourselves instead of looking upward and rejoicing in God when we are suffering tribulation.

Yesterday (fifteen years ago!) I called a former pastor’s wife whom I knew was suffering with vision problems and bruised ribs from a fall in the bathtub. When I asked her anxiously, “How are you?” expecting to be empathetic with her pain, she responded with incredibly cheery faith, “Oh, I’m just rejoicing in the Lord.” Wow! What a testimony to the realness of her comfort in God’s grace. This is the true secret of overcoming!

Just today (while editing this), I talked to a friend wh0 just come out from anesthesia after a hip replacement. I asked her, “How are you feeling?” to which she replied, “Oh, we had a fun day. They wheeled me into the wrong surgical suite, but they figured it out before they took out my appendix, and we all had a good laugh.” What a great attitude!

During the biggest test of my life, I “failed of the grace of God” (Hebrews 12:15). Under the torch of God’s hot refining fire, I gave up in many ways. I gained fourteen pounds in six months. I lost all desire to live and just wished I could die and go to be with the Lord, “which is far better”(Philippians 1:23), more absorbed by my own pain that moved by the needs of those around me.

Have you been in the wilderness? Have you come to the foot of the cross? Have you found the way out? Please take the time to read Hebrews 12 slowly and carefully. In my (Scofield) Bible, the heading for this chapter is “The walk and worship of the believer-priest.” That’s you and me! Don’t forget our calling and responsibility. What are we to do? Look up, and know that God is all wise, all powerful, and present everywhere…even here this minute.

Understand that not one sparrow falls without his consent, and not one person falls without his consent either. We may feel alone, but we are surrounded by a great cloud of witnesses who have gone before us through terrible suffering…perhaps similar to our own…perhaps even worse. Most of all, “Consider him [Jesus] that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds” (Hebrews 12:3). Trust Jesus. Lean on him. As soon as you can, stop crying and wipe away your tears!

Eventually it’s possible to find peace and joy again—even after terrible trials—and feel like being alive once more. It’s possible to come up out of the wilderness. I know. It happened to me.

Rise Up, My Love 262: The Mary Lesson

Song of Solomon 8:4 “I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, until he please.” As we end the Thanksgiving holiday in America and begin preparing for the Christmas holidays around the world, here is a precious thought to help us focus our minds and keep our priorities straight. It’s fresh from the heart of God to you today…even though it comes from Solomon’s 4,000 year old song!

The bride warns: “I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, until he please.” This is the third repetition of that refrain. The first was in 2:7 after the bride had become secured in her position as the true object of her husband’s singular desire and affection and was luxuriating in the rest of their love. The second was in 3:5 after the young wife feared a loss of that intimacy and had gone on a desperate search for her husband, stopping at nothing until she felt the wonderful peace of communion restored. This third time the refrain is heard in the midst of the busy-ness of their mature and very productive life together. It is not out of contentedness that she demands uninterrupted slumber for her husband, nor is it out of insecurity and possessiveness.

This time, the wife is demanding rest primarily for the sake of her husband, not herself. She has initiated their working together at what she knows he loves and needs to do; she has offered her love to him; she has prepared gifts for him; she has desired to give him her body and the sweet offerings of her mind; and now she protects him from those who would trouble him before he’s completely refreshed.

Three times the bride exclaims her charge: “stir not up, nor awake my love, until he please.” Three times, the symbolic number of fullness in Scripture…the completion of perfection. Throughout their marriage the refrain is heard: At the first bud of secured love and loyalty, during love’s early testing and blossom, and now when their love is truly in full bloom and more beautiful and fragrant than a summer rose! When wrapped in love’s embrace and resting in love…do not end those precious moments until your Lord so please! If only we could learn this lesson…thrice repeated.   This is the “Mary Lesson.” Of course, Solomon’s bride had learned the secret centuries before Jesus walked on the earth, but it was demonstrated for us again in the New Testament when Mary sat unperturbed at the feet of Christ. The “Mary Lesson” is learning to love Christ above all else. Actually, it is nothing more than learning to maintain the intuitive understanding shared by passionate lovers of all generations. It is learning how to appreciate your greatest treasure while you have it!

God wants us to be like Mary, who sat at the feet of Jesus and listened to Him. She did not care that there were other people milling about. She did not care that her sister was anxiously trying to play the perfect hostess for all the visitors wanting Jesus’ attention…and was frustrated because Mary wouldn’t help her. In fact, Mary did not care one whit about who wanted her to do what when or why! All she cared about was being with Jesus and listening to the things he wanted to tell her. Their time together meant more to her than anything or anybody else in the world, and well it should have, because this was likely the last quiet moments they had together before Jesus’ death.  Did you know that? Have you thought about what that would feel like? The supper that Lazarus, Martha, and Mary had invited Jesus to was just six days before the Passover…the night before his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and beginning of his “week of passion” which ended just five days later in his crucifixion. This was the night that Mary anointed Jesus’ feet with spikenard, and Jesus defended her, saying that she understood this was preparation for his burial. Other than the mention of women weeping at the foot of the cross, there is no record of Mary seeing Jesus again before his death.

How would you feel if you knew it was the last night you would be able to spend with the one person you loved more than anyone else in the world? No wonder she wept as she anointed his feet! But, bless Mary! Many had come to the feet of Jesus to be healed and receive miraculous help, but she alone of all mankind came to express her love and gratitude. Oh that we might so love Jesus, coming to sit at his feet in the quiet of the morning…or in the heart of night when we awake.Can you hear him calling you? Can you visualize his arms opening wide for you and feel the power of his love drawing you? What an incomprehensible privilege! “Come,” he calls. So may we come! Haven’t you experienced that passionate power of love? Is there anything you long for more than time communing with the one you love above all else? Do you protect your time “sitting at the feet of Jesus” drinking in His Word each day? That should be our first priority in life. If we learn to abide in the Vine and open our hearts to the flow of his Spirit at the beginning of each new day, we will be wonderfully nourished and revitalized…filled with “sap” and plump again like a limp flower rejuvenated after a refreshing rain!

Just as Prince Jonathan—weary from pursuing his enemies all day—was refreshed by dipping the end of his rod into the honey comb “and his eyes were enlightened” (I Samuel 14:27), so our hearts will be refreshed and our eyes enlightened to discern good and evil if we satisfy our souls by feeding on honey out of the Rock each day (Psalm 81:16). If you glean nothing else from this book, please learn the “Mary Lesson”…learn to be intimate with God by sitting daily at the feet of Jesus, listening to and obeying his Words…loving him, and gratefully expressing that love to him.

“Stir not up nor awake my love until he please.” Sit still at his feet… and in his embrace …until our lovely Lord Jesus is pleased to send us forth again into the heat of the new day.

Rise Up, My Love (261): Supernatural Love

Song of Solomon 8:3 “His left hand should be under my head, and his right hand should embrace me.” Let’s think more about how to develop the type of desire for your mate that the bride expresses here. If your natural first response is to blame your spouse, then join the huge club of people (myself included) who like to deny our own faults.  “Well, if he were more —————(fill in the blank with whatever he’s lacking), I would be more drawn to him.” I’ve used the same excuse.  But, let’s stop ourselves right there. None of us is perfect, and most of us are far from it. As certain as the day is long, King Solomon—like every other person living on the face of the earth—was not a perfect man. This bride didn’t simply love Solomon because he was perfect, and even if we study the story with Solomon as a type of Christ—who was perfect—we see that the wife did not always have such a passion for her husband. Remember? She was the one in chapter 5 who couldn’t be bothered to get up and open the door for him!  No, if we want to grow to really love our spouses with passion, we must come from another perspective. Rather than asking God to change our mates into such attractive people that we can’t help but have a passionate desire for them, we need to ask God to change our hearts so that we truly have a pure and fervent passion for our spouse today and every day, not based on our spouse’s perfection, but based on God’s miraculous love.  How does that occur? Well, first, I’m not suggesting that every woman should (or that it’s even possible to) feel ravenous sexual passion toward her husband every moment of her life. As humans, we have natural rhythms of emotion and sexual desire. But, I am suggesting that passion can be both a natural and a supernatural response. There have been many times in marriage when my passion was a natural response, but there have also been many times when my passion was a supernatural response in order to enable me to meet the needs of my husband.  Where did it come from? It was the direct result of prayer. Have you ever prayed or sung the song, “Give me a passion for souls, dear Lord…” In the same way, we can pray for a passion for our mate. 1 Peter 1:22 says, “Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently.” In Colossians 4:12 we see the example of Epaphras, who was “always labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.”  If Epaphras could pray fervently for the Colossians to “stand perfect and complete in all the will of God,” then certainly we can labor fervently in prayers so that we might love our spouses fervently, which is also the known will of God for us! Isn’t that true? I am not suggesting that husbands use this as a club to hang over their wives’ heads: “If you’d just pray hard enough, God would make you amorous tonight!” The Bible is clear that the husband is to love the wife and live with her “according to knowledge,” (and I presume that means a knowledge of her needs, capacities, and natural desires as well: Ephesians 5:25; Colossians 3:19; I Peter 3:7). But, I am suggesting that the wife, out of a desire to love her husband, can utilize the resource of prayer and may discover (as I have on many an occasion) that God will supernaturally grant her a passion that is not naturally within her.  It is an amazing experience to feel the miraculous filling of the Lord to become a conduit of his love. What is the spiritual application? Know and rejoice in the fact that what you have done for “the least of these my brethren” you have done unto Christ. Do you love Christ? Then you have every reason to love your spouse, regardless of the limitations in your relationship. You can love him as a way of living out your love for Christ and mirroring to the world the love of the church bride for her heavenly husband. (PS—I hope these photos made you smile, but I didn’t intend for them to in any way be demeaning of men!  Most of the images—including the mastodon—are from the Rochester Museum and Science Center in New York, taken during a recent trip to visit our son Stephen, who’s at Eastman School of Music [hence, the bust of Beethoven].  There is also one of our son Michael, who was [at the same time] visiting Martin Luther’s home in Germany and posed behind one of Martin’s robes. The stained glass of Jesus and the Lamb is from Stephen’s church, where he serves as pianist.)

Rise Up, My Love (260): What Do You Want Most of All?

Song of Solomon 8:3 “His left hand should be under my head, and his right hand should embrace me.” This verse is almost an exact repeat of 2:6, where the wife says, “His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me.” The only difference is in the verb. Here in 8:3 it is “should be…should embrace” rather than stating the fact that he “is.” The first three verses of this chapter are all in the subjunctive voice, expressing a desire for something to be true which has not actually happened up to this point, but the present tense, imperative charge in verse 4 makes it evident that the bride’s wish for communion did at last come true.

What a blessed thought that the Lord honors our ardent spiritual desires by eventually making them into spiritual realities. If we desire no barriers…there will at last be none! In our earlier discussion (2:6) the emphasis was on the spiritual nature of this loving embrace, and well it should have been, since the Song of Solomon, as the only biblical picture of the mysterious relationship between God and Israel (as well as the mystery of Christ and his bride), is ever and foremost a guide to spiritual love.

However, with this expression of a desire for the experience to be repeated, let’s consider the physical relationship as well. What exactly was Solomon’s bride wishing for here? It is obvious from this verse that the wife desires to intoxicate her husband not only with those loving preparations meant to relax him and bring him joy, but also with the expressions of her love in the deepest sense…to partake of him and give back to him…to become one with him with the intimacy only allowed in marriage.   Many of life’s most beautiful thoughts are conveyed in the unspoken eloquence of silent action, and I truly believe that for the great majority of men, the most profound way for a wife to express her love to him is through giving and accepting sexual pleasure, which is what we see developing in this verse. If the physical reality is that the wife is wishing for sexual communion with her husband, what does that say for us today, and what are the spiritual implications of that wish?   First, it seems that this is the perfect time for every wife (and husband too, really) to take a personal inventory of her-his secret “wish list.” If you could have anything you wanted, what would it be? What is your heart longing for most of all? Is it something material: a new house, a new car, a cottage on the lake, a special vacation…new clothes, a new appliance or power tool, new jewelry or sports equipment; new music? Do you want something more, or just something different? Maybe new friends, a new church, a new school situation for your family, or a new job situation? Oh, there are so many things we could wish for.

Dig deeper. Is there something even more important that you’re wishing for? Maybe a better relationship with someone you love…or don’t love? Maybe restoration of a broken friendship, or the healing of a strained relationship? Or, do you just long for more of a good thing…more happiness, more joy, more peace, more love…to know God better and love him more dearly…to understand your spouse better and love him with a deeper, sweeter, purer love?

The Song of Solomon records the cry of the wife’s heart, and it is to love and be loved by her husband in a very tangible, literal, physical way. Is this the cry of your heart? If it is, then praise God for such heat! If it is not, and rarely ever or never seems to be, then ask God why, and ask him how to change your heart so that you do truly have a passionate desire for your spouse.

Rise Up, My Love (259): Robes of White

Song of Solomon 8:2 What about our thoughts of Christ? I have been mulling over my impressions of Christ for the past several weeks, and right now I will pause and try to share a little with you. Today is December 27, 2001 (obviously, this post was originally written many years ago!), and I’m looking out at 28” of fresh snow. After a record-breakingly warm December with green grass and violets popping out, the Lord sent us every child’s Christmas wish…over two feet of wonderful, fluffy snow…starting on the eve of December 23 and continuing ever since.  That is what Christ has done for the world around me, but it so perfectly pictures what he has done within me also. The world of my soul, withered and brown from the failure of selfish sin, was strangely warmed and made alive again by the power of his resurrection love and salvation. But, my child-heart’s wish is now coming true…I’m being robed in the dazzling beauty of his snow-white righteousness.  I remember as a young woman feeling like such a miserable failure. I was saved at twelve and loved the Lord intensely, eventually going off to a Bible college with the dream of becoming a pastor’s wife. However, I only found one “preacher boy” who interested me, and I was much too unconventional for him. After college I dreamed of serving Christ by becoming a Christian psychologist, so I married Alan, who’d been a friend since junior high days and seemed to be heading in the same direction. We happily began graduate school together, but then Alan promptly decided that he should go into medicine instead. When my dear husband started medical school and I began rearing our brood of children a couple of years later, I found myself feeling not only like an unclean and unworthy vessel, but like one that had become broken and cast aside. It was about that time that Psalm 68 became precious to me…almost a “life chapter” or something, and verse 13 just jumped out: “Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold.”   It was as if the Lord was promising that, even though I felt like a useless, broken pot, he would transform me into a messenger of peace who could fly on wings of gold and silver. How could that ever happen? How will the Lord ever use me? I thought maybe Alan would become a medical missionary, or a Christian psychiatrist, and that I could help him with his work, but Alan never felt called to the mission field, and he went into internal medicine and began a normal practice here in America.   As the kids grew up and I saw what gems they were, I begin to think that perhaps the Lord intended for all of us to work together in some type of family ministry. Maybe. Our children are just beginning to blossom and choose careers, so it’s too early to know what the future may hold there. Still…little by little…year by year…one day at a time…with no more conscious thought than the earth gives to the changes going on within her…the Lord was working out his blessed will in me…carrying on that good work which he began so long ago.   It is God—not the earth— who ordains the weather. Oh, of course weather is inextricably intertwined with the earth, but if we get twenty-eight inches of lake effect snow, it’s because God made Lake Michigan, and God sovereignly decided that a cold front would pass over beginning two days before Christmas. “Mother Nature” is really created and controlled by Father God, and all that we are or do is because God has so ordained it for us.  And, it is also God who works out his sovereign will in us. Our job is simply to trust and obey the light he gives us, walking in the truth of God’s Word as illuminated by his Holy Spirit. It is God who changes us from a broken pot into a messenger of his love. It is God that makes us bright with the beauty of his snow-white robes of righteousness. Praise God from whom all blessings flow! Thank you, Lord, for your work in me. It was not by paths I would have chosen or through ways I planned, but you are slowly sanctifying and spiritually beautifying me…which is more than all I ever knew to want! As the songwriter expresses our hearts for God: “You’re all I want; You’re all I’ve ever needed… Make me know You are near.”

Rise Up, My Love (258): Spiced Pomegranate Juice

I want to tell you that everywhere we visited in India, I kept thinking of scripture verses that seemed to spring to life right before my eyes! This was even more true than in Israel, I think, because life in some parts of India today has striking similarities to what I imagine life might have been like in ancient Israel 4,000 years ago!  One of the common sights in India was vendors pushing carts loaded with lovely fresh fruits. (This was probably not so true in ancient Israel.) I don’t know how the vendors preserved their precious cargoes in the intense heat, but they were usually neatly stacked in orderly piles and looked very appealing.  Because of G.I. issues (which were constant for many of us) and very different bacteria in India, we were advised to abstain from fresh fruits unless we could personally wash them in bottled water and peel them, but on a steamy, hot day the thought of a glass of fresh-squeezed juice was certainly tempting! It’s with that thought in mind that I offer this Sunday’s commentary on the Song of Solomon:

Song of Solomon 8:2 “I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate.” As we’ve discovered from earlier studies, the pomegranate was considered the choicest fruit in Israel. It was also conjectured by some to picture a mind filled with true and beautiful thoughts of Christ, and if this interpretation is correct, it sheds a special radiance on the bride’s ardent declaration.

What is the bride wishing to do? She is wishing to influence her husband to enjoy the “spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate.” What exactly is that? According to one commentator, a kind of sorbet made from the juice of the pomegranate was a popular drink in the East.* Probably the bride had some such delectable specialty in mind, perhaps even one that was made from an old family recipe, since she refers to it as specifically coming from her own pomegranate and in the context of her natal home.

What is our Lord trying to teach us from this tiny gleam of Scriptural revelation? What are we as wives to desire for our husbands? What are we as believers to desire for Christ? If the pomegranate of the “temple” (forehead) is a mind filled with lovely thoughts about our husband, then the spiced wine made from “the juice of my pomegranate” would seem to be an offering of rich, flowing thoughts made by meditating on the one we love…in this physical world, our husband, and in the spiritual world, our Lord.

It is the bride’s desire to invite her husband to become intoxicated with the overflow of her thoughts and emotions as she meditates on his uinque beauties. What offering can you bring to your husband (or wife!) as a result of mulling over all the positive memories you have stored in the files of your mind? What are your thoughts about Christ? Go beyond simply describing who your husband and the Lord are, but also share what have they done for you. If you are reading this with your mate, why not take a few minutes right now and share your thoughts together?

If you can’t right now, would you consider writing out your thoughts now or this week sometime? Will you take time…maybe even just a half an hour for each mini essay…and write one for your Lord and one for your mate? If you’re looking for a “new fruit” to bring on your next mini honeymoon…why not bring along your thoughts to share? They will be even more thrilling to him (or her) than spiced wine (and shouldn’t cause any G.I. distress)!  🙂

* G. Lloyd Carr, The Song of Solomon: An Introduction and Commentary (Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1984), 554.

Rise Up, My Love (256): Afraid of Being Despised

Song of Solomon 8:1 What keeps the bride from immediately acting on her inspiration in this verse? Fear of being despised by others. How true the proverb: “The fear of man bringeth a snare.” Her lament is the core thought as the bride begins to paint this last poetic picture, and it should cause us to pause for serious introspection.

What keeps us from public displays of affection for our Lord? What keeps us from coming away with him during the day for a time of communion? Is it the fear of public ridicule? Are we afraid of being despised? Immediately verses begin to swirl through my brain, such as those prophetically spoken of Jesus: Isaiah 53:3, “He is despised and rejected of men… he was despised, and we esteemed him not,” and Psalm 22:6, “But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people.”

Jesus was clearly despised by those who rejected him. But…what about the New Testament admonitions such as 1 Timothy 4:12: “Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity,” and Titus 2:15: “These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.”

Those two lines of thought seem incongruous. What exactly does it mean to be despised? Is it something to be avoided, or is it something that we will inevitably suffer for the Lord’s sake? If Jesus, perfect as he was, was despised, how shall we escape such degradation? According to the dictionary, to despise something is to regard it as “unworthy of interest or concern” or worse yet, to regard it with “utter contempt (1)”. Our Lord was regarded as something unworthy of interest by those who rejected him. How often we find that true among unbelievers today!

How often I’ve tried to share Christ with those I love, and their response is often something like this, “I’m too busy. I don’t feel a need. There are too many other things going on in my life right now! Who cares?” Wow! I believe it is against this calloused indifference that our Lord admonished us to be examples of true faith and to “speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority” (Titus 2:15). Don’t let people ignore their need! Speak. Tell them. If they refuse to listen, then exhort them: “urge by strong, often stirring argument, admonition, advice, or appeal (2).”  If they still refuse to acknowledge their need of the Savior, then rebuke them: “criticize or reprove sharply; reprimand (3).” Point out to them their sins “with all authority”…based on the authority of the Word of God!

So, in the final analysis, it looks like the bride is afraid of being despised but should not be. King Solomon wrote in his proverbs that “the fear of man bringeth a snare,” but “whoso putteth his trust in the Lord shall be safe” (Proverbs 29:25). Perhaps he taught these very lessons to his wife long before they were recorded for posterity, because—happily—as the next three verses unfold, we see that the bride overcomes her fears in order to bring her husband into communion. And, for us as believers today, we should take heart, not fearing the ridicule of man, but rather pursuing our Lord…morning, noon, and night!

(1) The American Heritage Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, 507.
(2) Ibid, 642.
(3) Ibid, 1507.